Umbrella Clause

Awards  |  September 19, 2019

Spain held liable for breach of FET under the ECT for frustrating legitimate expectations of 9REN, a Luxembourg-based renewable energy investor

9REN Holding S.À.R.L. v. The Kingdom of Spain, ICSID Case No. ARB/15/15

ICSID tribunal finds Spain breached ECT obligations by failing to provide a reasonable rate of return

RREEF INFRASTRUCTURE (G.P.) LIMITED AND RREEF PAN-EUROPEAN INFRASTRUCTURE TWO LUX S.A R.L. V. KINGDOM OF SPAIN, ICSID CASE NO. ARB/13/30

Italy found liable for change in renewable energy policy in intra-EU arbitration

GREENTECH ENERGY SYSTEMS A/S & ORS. V. THE ITALIAN REPUBLIC, SCC ARBITRATION V (2015/095)

ITN  |  October 18, 2018

CMS v. Argentina

CMS Gas Transmission Co. v. Republic of Argentina, ICSID Case No. ARB/01/8 (Originally published in 2011 in International Investment Law and Sustainable Development: Key cases from 2000–2010; republished on this website on October 18, 2018. Read more here.) Decisions and award available at https://www.italaw.com/cases/288 Keywords Fair and equitable treatment, jurisdiction, minority shareholders, multiple/parallel proceedings, necessity defence, standard for […]

ITN  |  October 18, 2018

Continental Casualty v. Argentina

Continental Casualty Co. v. Republic of Argentina, ICSID Case No. ARB/03/9 (Originally published in 2011 in International Investment Law and Sustainable Development: Key cases from 2000–2010; republished on this website on October 18, 2018. Read more here.) Decisions and award available at https://www.italaw.com/cases/329 Keywords Expropriation, fair and equitable treatment, legitimate expectations, margin of appreciation, necessity defence, reference to other […]

ITN  |  October 18, 2018

SGS v. Pakistan

SGS Société Générale de Surveillance S.A. v. Islamic Republic of Pakistan, ICSID Case No. ARB/01/13 (Decision on Objections to Jurisdiction) (Originally published in 2011 in International Investment Law and Sustainable Development: Key cases from 2000–2010; republished on this website on October 18, 2018. Read more here.) Decision available at https://www.italaw.com/cases/1009 Keywords Contractual forum selection clause, definition of “investment,” “fork-in-the-road” clause, […]

ITN  |  October 18, 2018

Siemens v. Argentina

Siemens A.G. v. Republic of Argentina, ICSID Case No. ARB/02/8 (Originally published in 2011 in International Investment Law and Sustainable Development: Key cases from 2000–2010; republished on this website on October 18, 2018. Read more here.) Decision, award and other documents available at https://www.italaw.com/cases/1026 Keywords Corruption, damages, expropriation, interpretation, investor obligations, margin of appreciation, most favoured nation, proportionality, […]

ITN  |  October 18, 2018

SGS v. Philippines

SGS Société Générale de Surveillance S.A. v. Republic of the Philippines, ICSID Case No. ARB/02/6 (Decision on Objections to Jurisdiction and Separate Declaration) (Originally published in 2011 in International Investment Law and Sustainable Development: Key cases from 2000–2010; republished on this website on October 18, 2018. Read more here.) Decision available at https://www.italaw.com/cases/1018 Keywords Broad dispute resolution provision, contractual forum […]

Awards  |  September 26, 2017

Argentina ordered to pay over USD320 million for unlawful expropriation in airlines case

Teinver S.A., Transportes de Cercanías S.A. and Autobuses Urbanos del Sur S.A. v. The Argentine Republic, ICSID Case No. ARB/09/1

Awards  |  September 26, 2017

WNC v. Czechia: tribunal dismisses expropriation claim and determines that it has no jurisdiction over all other claims

WNC Factoring Limited v. The Czech Republic, PCA Case No. 2014-34

Claims by a Spanish investor declared inadmissible in a case against Costa Rica

Supervisión y Control S.A. v. Republic of Costa Rica, ICSID Case No. ARB/12/4

India’s Joint Interpretive Statement for BITs: An Attempt to Slay the Ghosts of the Past

The Government of India has proposed a Joint Interpretative Statement to its bilateral investment treaty (BIT) partners. The statement clarifies key substantive and procedural provisions, bringing them more in line with India’s new foreign investment policy.

The Brazil–Mozambique and Brazil–Angola Cooperation and Investment Facilitation Agreements (CIFAs): A Descriptive Overview

Brazil and Mozambique signed on March 30, 2015 the first Cooperation and Investment Facilitation Agreement (CIFA) based on Brazil’s new model bilateral investment treaty (BIT). The second was signed on April 1, 2015 between Brazil and Angola. Unlike traditional BITs, which are geared towards investor protection, the CIFAs focus primarily on cooperation and investment facilitation. They promote amicable ways to settle disputes and propose state–state dispute settlement as a backup; notably, they do not include provisions on investor–state arbitration.

ITN  |  January 14, 2013

Awards and Decisions

US$1.76 billion dollar award levied against Ecuador in dispute with Occidental; tribunal split over damages   Occidental Petroleum Corporation and Occidental Exploration and Production Company v. The Republic of Ecuador, ICSID Case No. ARB/06/11 Damon Vis-Dunbar The Republic of Ecuador has been ordered to pay US$1,769,625,000 billion in damages—the largest award to be handed down […]

ITN  |  October 30, 2012

Awards and Decisions

Majority declines jurisdiction in claim against Argentina over domestic litigation requirement Daimler Financial Services AG v. Argentine Republic, ICSID Case No. ARB/05/1 Damon Vis-Dunbar A claim against Argentina by a subsidiary of the German automotive firm Daimler A.G. has failed on its merits because the claimant did not first bring the dispute to court in […]

The SADC MODEL BIT Template: Investment for Sustainable Development

The South African Development Community (SADC) Model Bilateral Investment Treaty Template and Commentary was completed in June 2012 by Member States of the Community. Its completion marks the end of an 18 month process of consultations and drafting among government representatives and is intended as a guide for member states in future investment treaty negotiations.

Investment Law and Public Services: Clashes of Interests or Peaceful Coexistence?

[T]he Tribunal must balance the legitimate and reasonable expectations of the Claimants with […] [the] right to regulate the provision of a vital public service.[1] This quote from an investment arbitration tribunal highlights the relationship between international investment law and the regulation of public services. This essay illustrates areas of contention between the requirements of […]

ITN  |  September 23, 2010

Awards and Decisions

Argentina on the hook for breach of Fair and Equitable Treatment Suez, Sociedad General de Aguas de Barcelona S.A., and Vivendi Universal v. Argentine Republic (ICSID Case No. ARB/03/19) Lise Johnson On 30 July 2010, the ICSID tribunal in Suez, Sociedad General de Aguas de Barcelona S.A., and Vivendi Universal v. Argentina issued a decision […]

ITN  |  October 1, 2009

Chevron launches investment-treaty claim against Ecuador

By Damon Vis-Dunbar 2 October 2009 Correction: The original headline in this article stated that Chevron Corporation alleges a denial of justice on the part of Ecuador. Chevron explains that this is incorrect. While Chevron claims that Ecuador “abuses the criminal justice system”, its notice of arbitration does not assert a denial of justice. The world’s second […]

Awards  |  August 29, 2008

Duke Energy Electroquil Partners and Electroquil SA v Ecuador: Ecuador found liable for breaches of power purchase agreements and investment treaty

By Damon Vis-Dunbar 29 August 2008 The electricity provider Electroquil SA has been awarded US$ 5,578,566 plus interest stemming from several breaches of power purchase agreements (PPAs) backed by the government of Ecuador. While Ecuador was also found to have breached the Ecuador-US bilateral investment treaty, those violations did not result in additional monetary damages. […]