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Just Transition

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Energy transitions are about people: the ones who make the decisions and the ones affected by those decisions. A "just transition" approach ensures that the affected people are considered by those making decisions. 

The world has seen many transitions in the past, from automation to the decline or relocation of entire industries, leading to job losses and economic hardship. This has created a fear that future transitions will be similarly painful.

Low-carbon energy transitions are already happening in many countries, often due to economic factors or health concerns, but also supported and accelerated by climate change policies. Nevertheless, the actors involved, including governments, businesses, workers and communities, have a tendency to protect the status quo and keep carbon-intensive industries alive.

Early action on a just transition can minimize the negative impacts and maximize positive opportunities. The Paris Agreement on climate change includes just transition as an important principle. Just transition is not a fixed set of rules, but a vision and a process based on dialogue and an agenda shared by workers, industry and governments that need to be negotiated and implemented in their geographical, political, cultural and social contexts. It is implemented with a set of guiding principles, such as the International Labour Organization's guidelines for a just transition.

  • Report
    Beyond Fossil Fuels: Fiscal transition in BRICS

    Beyond Fossil Fuels: Fiscal transition in BRICS

    This report makes the case for preparing government budgets for the clean energy transition in BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa).

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  • Briefing Note
    Beyond Fossil Fuels: Fiscal Transition BRICS | Case Study: Brazil

    Beyond Fossil Fuels: Fiscal Transition BRICS | Case Study: Brazil

    This Brazil case study is part of the report Beyond Fossil Fuels: Fiscal transition in BRICS. It presents the aggregated data on both revenues and subsidies related to fossil fuels in Brazil.

    Read More
  • Briefing Note
    Beyond Fossil Fuels: Fiscal Transition BRICS | Case Study: Russia

    Beyond Fossil Fuels: Fiscal Transition BRICS | Case Study: Russia

    This Brazil case study is part of the report Beyond Fossil Fuels: Fiscal transition in BRICS. It presents the aggregated data on both revenues and subsidies related to fossil fuels in Brazil.

    Read More
  • Briefing Note
    Beyond Fossil Fuels: Fiscal Transition BRICS | Case Study: India

    Beyond Fossil Fuels: Fiscal Transition BRICS | Case Study: India

    This India case study is part of the report Beyond Fossil Fuels: Fiscal transition in BRICS. It presents the aggregated data on both revenues and subsidies related to fossil fuels in India.

    Read More
  • Briefing Note
    Beyond Fossil Fuels: Fiscal Transition BRICS | Case Study: China

    Beyond Fossil Fuels: Fiscal Transition BRICS | Case Study: China

    The China case study is part of the report Beyond Fossil Fuels: Fiscal transition in BRICS. It presents the aggregated data on both revenues and subsidies related to fossil fuels in China.

    Read More
  • Briefing Note
    Beyond Fossil Fuels: Fiscal Transition BRICS | Case Study: South Africa

    Beyond Fossil Fuels: Fiscal Transition BRICS | Case Study: South Africa

    The South Africa case study is part of the report Beyond Fossil Fuels: Fiscal transition in BRICS. It presents the aggregated data on both revenues and subsidies related to fossil fuels in South Africa.

    Read More
  • Blog
    How Reforming Fossil Fuel Subsidies Can Go Wrong: A lesson from Ecuador

    How Reforming Fossil Fuel Subsidies Can Go Wrong: A lesson from Ecuador

    There must be a foundation of trust, along with a clear plan to protect vulnerable segments of the population and, ideally, to phase in the reforms gradually.

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  • Briefing Note
    Redesigning the Energy Charter Treaty to Advance the Low-Carbon Transition

    Redesigning the Energy Charter Treaty to Advance the Low-Carbon Transition

    This paper discusses practical ways to overhaul the Energy Charter Treaty to bring it in line with international law commitments with respect to climate change and sustainable development.

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  • Report
    Raising Ambition Through Fossil Fuel Subsidy Reform: Greenhouse gas emissions results modelling from 26 countries

    Raising Ambition Through Fossil Fuel Subsidy Reform: Greenhouse gas emissions results modelling from 26 countries

    This working paper models 26 countries and finds national average emission reductions of 6 per cent from the removal of fossil fuel subsidies. For every tonne of CO2e removed through FFSR, governments save an average of USD 93. Global emission reductions from reforms are between 6.4 and 8.2 per cent by 2050. Countries can consider the carbon reduction co-benefits from FFSR and taxation within second-generation Nationally Determined Contributions.  

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  • Energy Efficiency and Subsidy Reform: A virtuous circle

    Energy challenges are similar across the world. Fortunately, so are the solutions. In many cases, subsidy reform and energy efficiency are closely linked and mutually supportive.

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